Since its creation, Migreurop has been documenting the externalisation of European migration policies. The aim of these externalisation policies is to keep people on the move as far away from Europe as possible, whatever the consequences for migrants’ rights. To this end, the EU and its member states bargain with so-called "third" countries (of origin and transit), to which they subcontract the management of migratory movements. In so doing, they shirk their obligations under the international conventions they have ratified.
Externalisation works on four principles:
- Relocation: European countries are relocating border controls and exporting their repressive migration policies to so-called "third" countries that are not subject to the same laws and obligations in terms of respect for people’s rights. They are thus effectively moving Europe’s borders beyond European territory.
- Subcontracting: The EU delegates migration control to non-member states, which become the border guards of a European Union they aspire to join (such as the Balkan countries) or on which they are partly dependent (such as Morocco, Niger, or Turkey).
- Privatisation: States are also delegating many prerogatives to private stakeholders, such as airlines, which are also becoming border guards, and other private companies in charge of visa applications or security in exile camps.
- Shirking responsibility: Through the externalization of their migration policies to countries that are not signatories to the main international instruments for the protection of migrants and refugees, the EU and European states are circumventing the law. They seek to make violations of migrants’ rights invisible and shirk their responsibilities.
Externalisation violates the rights of exiles with impunity and puts their lives at risk. It does not prevent migration but makes it more dangerous. Stop externalisation and state impunity!
Vidéo réalisée par l’agence Gorille
To find out more:
- See here Migreurop’s Advocacy brief on externalisation and hotspots for the European elections (2019)
- See here Migreurop Brief : « Externalisation across the board: from the EU - Turkey arrangement to Migration Compacts in Africa» (2016)