Consequences of the externalisation and asylum policies at the Eastern borders of EU
When eight countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CCEEs) recently joined EU, it created three kinds of spaces inside « Eastern Europe »: the first one is made up of the new Member States which joined EU on May 1, 2004 (Baltic countries, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia), the second one of Romania and Bulgaria - possibly including Croatia which is officially a candidate country - and the third one of neighbour countries such as Serbia, Montenegro or Albania in the Balkans, Ukraine or Moldova on the Eastern border (for the time being these countries are not candidate). For the new EU Member States, or for the candidate countries, the joining processes involve in depth transformations of national laws, particularly those relative to migration and asylum policies. What is the range of these transformations, what do they induce in the relations between Europe and Eastern countries?
For EU, the new Eastern neighbours are inescapable partners in the management of South-North and East-West migratory flows. ENP (the European Neighbourhood Policy) has a key role, like, in a lesser way, the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe: the reinforcement of safety in the area and the implementation of privileged cooperations with EU, main goals of these partnership tools, de facto include the management of illegal immigration, among others by making the borders safer. Thus, for example, Ukraine and Moldavia, partner countries, commit themselves to cooperate on the management and the reinforcement of their borders and on the signature of readmission agreements. Thus EU asylum and immigration policies are set within the scope of an externalisation logic, which transfers the responsibility upon countries where the logistic capacities and the political will to guarantee the respect of fundamental rights do not necessarily exist.
In the field of asylum, the RPPs (Regional Protection Programmes) launched by EU in 2005 are a product of such a logic: in the name of the reinforcement of protection in origin countries, and in order to help countries of first asylum to « offer to refugees and asylum seekers a living in accordance with the international standards », EU gets rid, with the help of financial incentives, of the reception of refugees, considered today as a burden. East of EU, just like South of the Mediterranean, are thus created transit zones, « buffer zones », intended to protect European citizens against the unwanted, in a process which harms asylum right, circulation right, and more generally the respect of fundamental rights.
One of the consequences of the European integration processes is the multiplication of places where to confine foreigners, in order to identify, control and manage. What are the characteristics of detention in Eastern Europe countries? Are these processes built on the exportation of old European models? How do the civil societies in the new Member States envision this legacy (if it is one)?
Following the seminar organised in June 2005 in Seville (Spain), on Externalisation of controls at the Southern European borders, Migreurop invites to a meeting on May 28-29, 2007 in Ljubljana (Slovenia) on the consequences of the externalisation of immigration and asylum policies at the Eastern EU border.
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Monday May 28, 2007
– Introduction: the Migreurop network (Migreurop)
Creation, goals and formation
Foreigners camps map and externalisation policy
Recent activities and 2007-2008 programme
– Externalisation in the «buffer countries» South and East of Europe
- European neighbourhood policy and externalisation Claire Rodier (Migreurop-GISTI)
- Subsaharian migrations in Morocco: consequences of the European policies on the Moroccan situation and repercussions in the region Hicham Rachidi (Migreurop-GADEM)
- Ukraine, a model of « buffer country »? Natalia Shapovalova (Researcher, European Integration and Foreign Affairs Programme in Kiev)
- Turkey: the role of the management of « migratory flows » in the EU joining process Ceren Ozturk (HCA, Turquie)
Tuesday May 29, 2007
– Consequences of these policies: border management and foreigners detention in the EU Member states
- Introduction: role of Frontex agency (Migreurop)
- National situations
- Hungary Marta Pardavi (Hungarian Helsinki Committee); Dr. Ejalu (director of the International Law and Research on Human Rights Monitoring Center ILRHRMC)
- Slovenia Andrej Kurnik (Anti-Racist Assembly - ARA, prof of political sciences, Ljubljana sociology university); Sonja Sikosec, Peace Institute and Legal Information Centre for NGOs (PIC)
- Bulgaria Anna Krasteva (Director of of the Political Sciences dept - CERMES -Centre for European Refugees, Migration and Ethnic Studies)
- How France treats the citizens of « new EU Member states » Alexandre Leclève (Migreurop-Cimade)
– Conclusion: Perspective for collective work, enlargement of the Migreurop network